WHAT IS A MUTUAL FUND?
Mutual fund is the pool of the money, based on the trust who invests the savings of a number of investors who shares a common financial goal, like the capital appreciation and dividend earning. The money thus collect is then invested in capital market instruments such as shares, debenture, and foreign market. Investors invest money and get the units as per the unit value which we called as NAV (net assets value). Mutual fund is the most suitable investment for the common man as it offers an opportunity to invest in diversified portfolio management, good research team, professionally managed Indian stock as well as the foreign market, the main aim of the fund manager is to taking the scrip that have under value and future will rising, then fund manager sell out the stock. Fund manager concentration on risk – return trade off, where minimize the risk and maximize the return through diversification of the portfolio. The most common features of the mutual fund unit are low cost. The below I mention the how the transactions will done or working with mutual fund
History of Mutual Fund in india
The mutual fund industry in India started in 1963 with the formation of Unit Trust of India, at the initiative of the Government of India and Reserve Bank of India. The history of mutual funds in India can be broadly divided into four distinct phases
First Phase – 1964-1987
Unit Trust of India (UTI) was established in 1963 by an Act of Parliament. It was set up by the Reserve Bank of India and functioned under the Regulatory and administrative control of the Reserve Bank of India. In 1978 UTI was de-linked from the RBI and the Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) took over the regulatory and administrative control in place of RBI. The first scheme launched by UTI was Unit Scheme 1964. At the end of 1988 UTI had Rs. 6,700 crores of assets under management.
Second Phase – 1987-1993 (Entry of Public Sector Funds)
1987 marked the entry of non-UTI, public sector mutual funds set up by public sector banks and Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) and General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC). SBI Mutual Fund was the first non-UTI Mutual Fund established in June 1987 followed by Canbank Mutual Fund (Dec 87), Punjab National Bank Mutual Fund (Aug 89), Indian Bank Mutual Fund (Nov 89), Bank of India (Jun 90), Bank of Baroda Mutual Fund (Oct 92). LIC established its mutual fund in June 1989 while GIC had set up its mutual fund in December 1990.
At the end of 1993, the mutual fund industry had assets under management of Rs. 47,004 crores.
Third Phase – 1993-2003 (Entry of Private Sector Funds)
With the entry of private sector funds in 1993, a new era started in the Indian mutual fund industry, giving the Indian investors a wider choice of fund families. Also, 1993 was the year in which the first Mutual Fund Regulations came into being, under which all mutual funds, except UTI were to be registered and governed. The erstwhile Kothari Pioneer (now merged with Franklin Templeton) was the first private sector mutual fund registered in July 1993.
The 1993 SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations were substituted by a more comprehensive and revised Mutual Fund Regulations in 1996. The industry now functions under the SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations 1996.
The number of mutual fund houses went on increasing, with many foreign mutual funds setting up funds in India and also the industry has witnessed several mergers and acquisitions. As at the end of January 2003, there were 33 mutual funds with total assets of Rs. 1,21,805 crores. The Unit Trust of India with Rs. 44,541 crores of assets under management was way ahead of other mutual funds.
Fourth Phase – since February 2003
In February 2003, following the repeal of the Unit Trust of India Act 1963 UTI was bifurcated into two separate entities. One is the Specified Undertaking of the Unit Trust of India with assets under management of Rs. 29,835 crores as at the end of January 2003, representing broadly, the assets of US 64 scheme, assured return and certain other schemes. The Specified Undertaking of Unit Trust of India, functioning under an administrator and under the rules framed by Government of India and does not come under the purview of the Mutual Fund Regulations.
The second is the UTI Mutual Fund, sponsored by SBI, PNB, BOB and LIC. It is registered with SEBI and functions under the Mutual Fund Regulations. With the bifurcation of the erstwhile UTI which had in March 2000 more than Rs. 76,000 crores of assets under management and with the setting up of a UTI Mutual Fund, conforming to the SEBI Mutual Fund Regulations, and with recent mergers taking place among different private sector funds, the mutual fund industry has entered its current phase of consolidation and growth.
If you are new in the mutual fund investing, understand and educate yourself about the different mutual fund schemes suitable for different time frames. The rationale behind every investment needs to be prudently planned.
Blue :Low risk
Debt schemes such as debt mutual funds, fixed maturity plan, liquid funds and gilt funds etc. which carry low risk would indicate blue on the label. It is primarily for risk averse investors
Yellow : Medium risk
Hybrid mutual fund products such as monthly income plans, balanced mutual funds etc., which carry moderate risk, fall under this category.
Brown : High risk
All equity investment schemes such as the diversified equity funds,mid-cap and small cap funds, index funds etc. which associate themselves with high risk fall in this colour code. This suits investors who are highly tolerant to risk, and have the long term time frame for their investments.
Mutual funds record highest growth in 7 years, Rs3.71 trillion added to their kitty
The country’s mutual fund (MF) assets logged the highest growth in seven years to reach a total corpus of around Rs17 trillion, despite lacklustre equity markets and challenging economic conditions due to demonetisation and a surge in global oil prices.
During the year ended December 2016, asset management companies, or AMCs, grew their average assets by around 30% by adding investments worth at least Rs3.71 trillion to their MF portfolios—the highest ever in absolute terms and the highest since December 2009 in percentage terms.
According to AMC officials, increasing number of investor accounts, steadily growing monthly investments into equity MF schemes from retail customers and a surge in inflows to exchange traded funds (ETFs) contributed the most to the asset growth of the country’s 42 AMCs.